World War I Journal: Battlefields

Our World War I group is more than halfway through its J-term in Europe. As we continue our stay in Paris, we’re all still thinking about our four days at Ypres, the Somme, and Normandy, three of the most important battlefields of the 20th century.

Here I’m happy to share two reflections written by Graphic Design/Studio Art major Anna Solomon during that stage of the trip. She started by thinking about the first stop on our Ypres tour: the British cemetery at Essex Farm, where a Canadian doctor named John McCrae wrote one of the most famous poems of WWI. Then Anna reexamined her impressions of the First World War after seeing sites from the Second.

London’s Tower Bridge
Tower Bridge, London. All photos in this post by Anna Solomon – used by permission

Wednesday, January 9, 2019 – Going from the bustling metropolis of London with its energy, charm, fun, comfort, weather, and familiarity to Ypres was a meaningful experience. Ypres is quiet, solemn, open, quaint, moving (emotionally), cold… and home to some of the most remarkable experiences of the trip. Seeing where “In Flanders Fields” was written was humbling. I’m having trouble wrapping my mind around the gravitas of these places. I feel like I want to cry (I kind of have a few times), but that’s good because it means it’s important. Even though my great-grandfather was the one to fight here and not me, these sites are giving me a connection with a war I never fought and a man not even my grandfather knew.

Essex Farm was also impactful because we saw workers [from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission] maintaining the graves. Seeing them serving and interacting with the site in that way was striking. Watching them tend the grounds they seemed like gardeners of honor and ghosts of the past. The war still means so much to them, as does the conservation of these sites and of the sacrifices of the past. Here history walks the grounds and shakes me to my core.

Grave of an unknown WWI soldier

Saturday, January 12, 2019 – …at the WWI sites I felt distraught and bitter about the war. My great-grandfather’s dog tags and victory medal felt impossibly heavy on my mind and in my pockets. My eyes would tear up thinking of how brutal and awful a war it was. The WWII sites at Normandy, however, felt different, and it quite frankly made me ponder why I felt that way. At the beaches and bunkers I felt excited… maybe because this seemed like a place and a war where Americans were heroes, the good guys; we were victorious. In movies and TV shows I’ve heard about these events, and it’s exhilarating to be in the place where they happened. The feeling of this being a glorious war swiftly faded upon contemplation. What horrors were seen and committed here… how many lives were lost here… what a different world this would have been to live in and through… what a haunting legacy.

Arromanches home, with Gold Beach in the distance
Arromanches-les-Bains, France… with remnants of the temporary “Mulberry harbour” on what used to be Gold Beach

On Wednesday we’ll take the train to Munich, where we’ll conclude our trip by studying some of the most important legacies of the First World War: the rise of National Socialism, the start of a second world war, and the radical evil of the Holocaust. Look for a final set of student reflections next Tuesday or Wednesday.

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World War I Journal: London

Today our World War I group will head to Oxford to learn about the world wars as J.R.R. Tolkien and C.S. Lewis experienced and interpreted them. Meanwhile, we thought we’d share a few student responses from our first days in London, as they reflect on some of the commemorative sites we’ve visited.


“The memorial that I found most interesting was Trafalgar Square because it hit me the most in terms of generating empathy… if I had been there in 1914, I would have joined the war, too. The monuments to past generals, admirals, and war heroes inspired me, and I am not even English. I would have… wanted to be remembered in history as a part of them.” (Drew Davis, senior Business major)

Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square, still a gathering place for Londoners – All photos Chris Gehrz

After going to multiple memorial sites, I found the one most memorable to be the Women of WWII memorial… The monument itself is stuck right in the middle of the road, which you’d think would grab the attention of the drivers who go past it. But it seems like it’s part of their daily routine. I love how tall it was and how it was solid. It serves as a constant reminder of the women who stepped up in the war effort to preserve the life that was still going on at home. I also like how the clothes represented different roles, which showed the diversity of the women who served.” (Laura Dahlquist, senior Nursing major)

The Women of World War II memorial in Whitehall, London

For me the most interesting memorial was Australia’s… due to my lack of knowledge of Australia’s involvement in the wars. I was really amazed by the simple beauty of the wall, and by how many people had died… Their sacrifices in the wars were interesting due to their location… Their involvement and the number of battles show that the wars was appealing universally. Not just for Europeans, but to others around the world. A chance to prove oneself or to prove a country’s capabilities…” (Logan Olson, senior History/Political Science major)

Australian war memorial in Hyde Park Corner, London
The Australian War Memorial is one of four WWI memorials in Hyde Park Corner, joining memorials for New Zealand, the artillery, and the machine gun corps

On Wednesday we’ll start our tour of WWI (Flanders, The Somme) and WWII (Normandy) battlefields. Come back here next week to read some student reflections on that portion of our tour.

How to Follow Our 2019 World War I Trip

This afternoon Prof. Mulberry and I will fly to London with 23 Bethel students for the fourth iteration of our HIS230L World War I travel course.

Map showing sites on the Bethel WWI travel course for January 2019

As usual, we’ll start with eight days in London and Oxford, then cross the English Channel for our battlefield tour — this year including a day at Normandy to start making connections between the two world wars. We’ll finish with four days in Paris and five in Munich before heading home.

If you want to follow along with our journeys, we’ll be sharing photos on our Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook pages, or you can look for the hashtags #BethelWWI and #BethelAbroad. We might even blog a bit from the road, as students reflect on sites they visit and primary sources they read.

Please pray that we’ll all have safe travels and transformative experiences as we delve into the history of a war that ended a century ago last month.

CWC Journal: Lessons from St. Benedict

Today we’re happy to share a second example of recent exam essays in GES130 Christianity and Western Culture, in which students explained a lesson they thought contemporary Christians could learn from their medieval forebears. This essay comes from Maddie Sumners, a freshman at Bethel who hails from Victoria, MN and graduated from Chanhassen High School.

One important lesson that would help us in the 21st century comes from St. Benedict, an Italian monk who lived between the 4th and 5th centuries. He formed the version of monasticism known as the Benedictine Order, the rules for which are outlined in The Rule of St. Benedict. He calls Christians to live according to a set of rules that are not meant to be burdensome or oppressing, but gently guide them toward holiness. Also included in this version of monasticism is the idea of living one’s life to glorify God through work and study. What humans in the 21st century can really learn from the Benedictine Order, however, is the idea of living in community with other believers.

Maddie Sumners
Maddie’s major is currently undecided, as she is interested in a variety of subject areas, ranging from history to English, math to science. She also loves spending time with her family, friends, and three cats, and is looking forward to the coming years at Bethel and exploring all that it has to offer!

Modern culture is increasingly individualistic, with the rise of the internet and technology, people today rarely feel the need to interact with others. In fact, many people do not even leave their homes to attend church. They simply watch sermons online. This individualistic attitude, however, is in opposition to God’s call for Christians.

God calls Christians to join together as communities of faith, so that each person in the community may grow in their own faith journey throught he process of working through personal struggles with others and helping others through any struggles they may be experiencing. It is this mode of sharing one’s life with others that Benedict modeled so well through building monasteries for monks to live in.

Christians should respond to God’s call and live (metaphorically) as St. Benedict and his followers did. In doing so, Christians will form stronger, healthier relationships with God and others, an invaluable benefit of community. Though Benedict lived centuries ago, his model of faith is one that Christians today can learn much from, and his ideas on community should be applied in the 21st century, so that Christians can grow in their faith and come closer to God.

CWC Journal: Lessons from the Middle Ages

We’ve occasionally published student work from upper-level History courses like Modern Europe and Senior Seminar, but this week I thought I’d share some writing by Bethel students who aren’t necessarily majoring in History… but are studying the past in Christianity and Western Culture, the multidisciplinary first-year course that is a foundation of Bethel’s gen ed curriculum. Taking some inspiration from our former colleague Chris Armstrong, we asked CWC students to conclude their second exams with a short essay sharing “one important lesson… we can learn from medieval Christianity.” We’ll start with this wonderful piece by pre-nursing student Lynsey Zeng (Plymouth, MN).


When Dante Alighieri wrote his way to heaven, he was putting into words what the Medieval mind already knew: that the world, nestled within concentric, crystalline spheres, was little more than an abyss — a hollow pocket to faintly echo the symphony of the cosmos. Beneath the earth, the wintry crater of hell juxtaposed the swift revolution of the planets with its stillness, and the human being, caught at the center of the universe, was given the choice to either ascend or be drawn under. The heliocentric universe, with its conviction that it is outer space which is silent and the world which is a cacophony, would have been ridiculous to the medievals. To them, heaven was paralleled in the order of the universe, and God was just beyond the rim of the stars. For centuries, they built cathedrals like causeways and constructed and constructed towering scholastic arguments in an attempt to peer beyond the physical. Above all, the paradox of the Sacraments was a startling reminder that the Christian must contradict the world in order to be oriented towards God. Modernists may scoff at the primitive science of the “Dark Ages,” but it is telling of our spiritual state that we are often content to live comfortably within the world while the medieval was always trying to climb out of it.

Lynsey Zeng
Lynsey graduated from Chesterton Academy high school where she developed interests in Medieval history, philosophy, and Renaissance art. Though the majority of her college classes are devoted to the sciences, she believes that courses such as CWC are necessary in order to provide patient-centered healthcare because they contextualize scientific observations within an analysis of human nature.

Heliocentrism is correct; human ears cannot perceive sound in the vacuum of outer space and so we have filled the earth with endless distractions. In the 21st century, it is a rare and uncomfortable thing to experience silence, but to the medieval, it was essential. It is what the Christian would have confessed his sins into, and hearing them apart from himself in the quiet, they would have appeared alien and ugly. Silence is what the mystic needed to envision, the scholastic to rationalize, and the monk to reflect. Modern Christians need not believe in geocentrism, but there is something admirable in the medieval attempt to turn culture into a compass towards God. From the Middle Ages we are reminded that we are between heaven and hell, that the distractions of this world are ephemeral, and that perhaps only in the silence can the symphony of heaven be heard.

How to Commemorate World War I This Month

As many of you may remember from one of our courses, World War I ended 100 years ago this month — at least, on its most famous front. On the eleventh hour of the eleventh hour of the eleventh month of 1918, the guns finally fell silent in Belgium and northern France.

If you’d like to take part in commemorating the centennial of that armistice, here are a few events coming up in the Twin Cities:

Silent Night

The Pulitzer Prize-winning opera about the Christmas Truce of 1914 comes home to the Minnesota Opera for a run at the Ordway Center in St. Paul. There are performances this weekend and next, plus the 13th and 15th. (I was part of a panel previewing the production last Monday; here’s a blog post inspired by one of the questions I received: “What misconceptions do we have about World War I?”)

State Veterans Day Event

The Veterans Memorial Community Center in Inver Grove Heights will host the state’s Veterans Day event on Sunday morning, 9:30-11:30. The keynote speaker will be Nancy O’Brien Wagner, editor of a new collection of WWI letters from her great-aunt, one of the many women who volunteered for service in the war.

Bells of Peace

Around the country on Sunday, there will be bell-ringing ceremonies to mark the centennial of the Armistice. In addition to local churches, there will be a state Bells of Peace event on the University of Minnesota campus at Northrup Auditorium. The ceremony will start at 10:45am, with 21 bells rung at 11am, and then the reading of the names of all 1,432 Minnesotan soldiers killed in the war. (Presumably including at least a couple of Bethel’s fallen alumni.)

The Great War Symphony

Then at 4pm, Northrup will host the American debut of composer Patrick Hawes’ Great War Symphony (simultaneous with a production at Carnegie Hall in New York). While you’re at the Lest We Forget concert, you can also see David Geister’s mural, World War 1 America, which he painted during the run of that exhibition last year at the Minnesota History Center.

That mural now resides in the library of the Minnesota Military Museum at Camp Ripley, which is open Thursday-Saturday and has a special exhibit through next year, In the Fight: Minnesota and the World War.

How You Can Hear Prof. Gehrz Talk about World War I — and Maybe Opera

Next month marks the 100th anniversary of the Armistice that ended the First World War on its famous Western Front. As part of the international commemoration of that event, the Minnesota Opera will be performing Silent Night, a dramatization of the 1914 Christmas Truce, at the Ordway Center — November 10-18.

As a preview event, the Minnesota Opera, MinnPost, and the University of Minnesota’s School of Music are presenting “Silent Night: A Soldier’s Humanity and the Impact of WWI” — Monday, October 29, 7pm at Westminster Hall in downtown Minneapolis. I’ll be one of the panelists discussing soldiers’ experiences of the war, plus a member of the cast will perform selections from the opera itself. The event is free, but click the link above to register.

To put you in mind of the subject… Enjoy these photos from Monday night’s meeting of our J-term WWI trip participants. Bethel alum Jenna Kubly ’02 joined us to share some of her extensive collection of WWI artifacts, including everything from swords and uniforms to medals and postcards.

From AC 2nd to… Historical Interpretive Coordinator

 

This week I talked with Bethel history alum Dana Morrison-Lorenz about combining her love of history and theatre. She graduated in 2012 and now coordinates historical interpreters at the Lewis and Clark Interpretive Center at North Dakota’s Fort Mandan.

What led to your interest in history?

My parents (particularly my dad) had a big interest in history and during many family vacations we would stop at historically significant sites. I also have two older sisters that were very interested in history. (In fact, both sisters studied history at Bethel as well.) Being as I looked up to them I wanted to do as they did, and so I began getting into the same things they did and history was a big one. As I got older I always wanted the answers to “why” questions: Why do we do things a certain way? Why are things the way they are? etc. And I found that history was a fascinating way to answer those questions. Sometimes the answers were simple and sometimes they were heartbreaking, but finding out the truth (or at the very least facts presented whether truthful or not) led to a lot of fulfillment for me.

What was one of your favorite courses or memories from Bethel?

I really enjoyed my Cold War class. Although I knew about the Cold War and the basics about what it involved, I learned so much through that course. I was born the year after the Berlin Wall came down and so it felt like a part of history that I had just missed out on, something that was so close to my lifetime but still seemed so foreign. Through the class it was interesting to dive deeper into what led up to the Cold War, what events occurred that aren’t as well known, and what ramifications from the Cold War are still felt today.

Some of the standout things I remember from the class was on the first day Dr. Gehrz asked us what we think of when we hear “Cold War” and he wrote our answers on the board. We had a discussion about how that list has changed over the years that he has been teaching the course and how our perception of an event is shaped by the time we are living in. Dr. Gehrz would also play us songs from the Cold War era and would print out the lyrics so we could follow along. I still have those sheets nearly 10 years later.

What led you to your current career?

It wasn’t until late in my college career that I figured that working in a museum/historic site might be an interesting career. I was more so studying history out of a passion for it and thought that the skills from studying history could work well in any career I chose, not necessarily having anything to do with history. So when I realized that I may want to pursue a career in a museum setting I started looking at my options. I looked into going to grad school (and to be honest it’s still not off the table), but it didn’t seem like the right time to go back to school. Instead I began volunteering through the Minnesota Historical Society so that I could start to gain some experience. I worked with the MHS Press transcribing interviews for upcoming books and with the Event Volunteers, talking with visitors and performing behind-the-scenes tasks. All the while I was applying for jobs around the Minneapolis/St. Paul area. Although I got a few interviews, none of these panned out.

Then I heard about an interpreter position at the Lewis & Clark Interpretive Center/Fort Mandan from my sister’s former high school classmate and decided to apply for the position. I interviewed by phone a few weeks later and then the next week I had found out I got the position. Two weeks later I moved back to my home state of North Dakota and began my career as an historical interpreter.  Three years later I applied for the Interpretive Coordinator position within the same museum and started my new role in July of this year.

Dana on the job

What are some of the duties that come with your position?

Since we are a small staff at our location I have a lot of duties that I take care of. First and foremost, I interact with our visitors, whether that be giving a guided tour of Fort Mandan or answering questions within the museum. As the Coordinator I am also responsible for all of the interpreters. If they have questions or concerns, they can come to me. I will give them tasks and duties and guide them as they develop interpretive programming and tours. Other duties include planning events and temporary exhibits. This is usually done in the winter when visitation is slow. We will usually have 2-4 temporary exhibits throughout the year, with three available galleries for the exhibits.  We also have events going year round that I have to plan and promote.

I am also in charge of our social media presence so I make posts to Facebook and Instagram nearly every day. In recent years there has been a demand for site content to be available on social media, and we are trying to get information out there so even though people may not be able to visit our site we can give them interpretive content. Facebook has also been great to promote events and keep our followers up-to-date on what’s going on.

Beyond these duties I go where I am needed so I will worked the register in the museum stores, help with maintenance, and occasionally even to off site if needed.

How has Historical Interpreting let you combine your interests in History and Theatre?

There are days where we will dress up in historical clothing while working at Fort Mandan. We don’t go so far as to reenact like it’s 1804 at the fort, but having the clothing gives a different feel to the fort that people really enjoy. Combining my passions for history and theatre has also helped in my presentations, whether it be a fort tour, demonstrating how to use a flintlock, or preparing presentations to give to the public. In a sense I play a bit of a role with my job. I wear a park uniform (a costume) and I stand in front of visitors (an audience) to deliver a tour (a performance).

If you go deeper there are a lot of connections between history and theatre that have helped in my position. Both history and theatre rely on storytelling, both incorporate aspects of teamwork and critical thinking, and both allow you to overcome limitations. All of these skills are integral to my role as a historical interpreter.

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What We Did On Our Summer Break: Faculty

It’s the first week of the new year at Bethel, but before we get too far into the fall, we thought we’d look back at what the people of AC 2nd did with their summers. We’ll hear from some students soon enough. But let’s start with a few members of our faculty:

Prof. Poppinga wake boarding off Costa Rica
Courtesy of Amy Poppinga

Amy Poppinga: It is hard to believe we are already back to school. I had a wonderful summer that consisted of research and writing, quality time with my immediate and extended family, and some personal time with friends. It started with me traveling with my closest friend from Bethel on a trip to Costa Rica to celebrate our 40th birthdays. We attended a week-long women’s surfing camp. It was hard work but I loved it! We met as students in the History department, and I am grateful for our enduring friendship despite many moves, job and life changes.

Then along with my good friend and colleague, Sara Shady, I received two grants to work on creating a new course for Bethel’s Pietas Honors Program. The course centers on community, spiritual identity, and interfaith engagement. Keeping with my continued interest and research in the field of Interfaith Studies, I just co-authored an article, “Building Bridges Across Faith Lines: Responsible Christian Education in a Post-Christian Society” with Marion Larson and Sara Shady for the Journal of Christian Higher Education.

Prof. Goldberg in Greece
Courtesy of Charlie Goldberg

Charlie Goldberg: I was thrilled to have been selected to travel to Greece for nine days to participate in a seminar on fostering an appreciation for the classics in undergraduate education. The seminar was run by Harvard University’s Center for Hellenic Studies in conjunction with the Council of Independent Colleges. Along with nineteen other college professors and trip leaders Greg Nagy (Harvard University) and Kenny Morrell (Rhodes College), I toured the Peloponnese and spent time in Delphi and Athens. The group discussed strategies for raising appreciation for the classics and ancient history at small colleges, shared lesson plans, and made plans for future collaborations. I also shared my experience launching Bethel’s new Digital Humanities major with others interested in similar efforts at their home institutions, and will forever appreciate the lifelong professional and personal relationships I forged on the trip.

Diana Magnuson: I continued to collaborate with two historians at the Minnesota Population Center (U of MN). My paper with Steven Ruggles, “Capturing the American People: Census Technology and Institutional Change, 1790-2020,” was submitted in July to an American history journal. Our paper was accepted for presentation at the Social Science History Association annual meeting in Phoenix (November 2018) and will also be presented in October at the Office of Population Research, Princeton University.  We have another project underway researching the history of privacy and the U.S. Census. Then Ronald Goeken and I are expanding our research to include all major census recounts.

Sam Mulberry: I spent this summer getting back up to speed with normal Bethel work after my Spring 2018 sabbatical.  I had two major projects on my plate.  First, I worked to build academic schedules for incoming students who will be new to Bethel in the Fall.  This included both building their initial schedules as well as meeting with students throughout the summer to make changes and adjustments to their schedules.  Secondly, I taught CWC (GES130) online with Chris Gehrz and Amy Poppinga.  This was my sixth straight summer teaching this class.  Although everything in the class went really smoothly, I did spend a chunk of the summer starting to think through how the next iteration of the class might look.

First Congregational Church of Litchfield, CT
One of the places Prof. Gehrz preached this summer: First Congregational Church in Litchfield, Connecticut, whose oft-photographed building dates to 1829.

Chris Gehrz: This summer break was incredible! I spent the first five weeks of break out east, mostly doing research for my new Charles Lindbergh biography. I started at the Library of Congress (holding an impromptu alumni reunion along the way) then spent a month back at my graduate alma mater, Yale University, home of the Lindbergh Papers. While I was in the Northeast, I also had the chance to preach at three churches in Connecticut and Massachusetts, as a follow-up to my 2017 book, The Pietist Option. Meanwhile, I found time to walk the Freedom Trail in Boston, see my first game at Fenway Park, and visit Plymouth Rock. But the true highlight of my summer came in mid-July… On my way back to the Midwest, I detoured to southwestern Virginia for a week to take part in the celebration of my dad’s retirement, after 45 years of service as a pediatrician and medical researcher.

Congratulations, Dr. Moore!

Congratulations to our friend and neighbor, Dr. Chris Moore, winner of the 2018 Faculty Excellence Award for Teaching!

Chris MooreDr. Moore teaches courses on international relations in the Political Science department, including one that is cross-listed in History (Revolution and Political Development). Many of you know firsthand his skill in guiding in-class discussion and integrating simulations into courses, and that his office is a regular hangout for students who want to talk about politics and faith. Dr. Moore also advises Bethel’s Model United Nations club, and regularly contributes to several of the podcasts on Prof. Mulberry’s Live from AC 2nd network.

The teaching award was announced yesterday afternoon at Bethel’s annual faculty retreat, along with those for service and leadership (Bethany Opsata, Business & Economics) and scholarship (Juan Hernandez, Biblical and Theological Studies). Congratulations to three richly deserving recipients!