Hi, my name is Mary Hitt and I am the new social media TA for the History Department.
If you would have told me as a freshman that I would doing this I would not have believed you. I came into college as a business major and quickly learned that I wanted to go a different route. When I wasn’t sure what I wanted to do my advisor told me to get some of my electives out of the way. The first elective that I decided to take was my art elective, and I loved it. After some thought and a handful of conversations, I decided to change my major to Graphic Design. The thing that I love the most about my major is that whenever I sit down to work it doesn’t feel like work, it feels like I am creatively getting to solve problems.
I got involved with the History Department through a random stroke of luck. For my Contemporary Western Life and Thought requirement, I decided to take a history class with Professor Kooistra. I enjoyed the class so much that I decided to add a history minor. After adding my minor, Professor Kooistra encouraged me to sign up for the WWI J-term study abroad trip led by Professors Gehrz and Mulberry. Going abroad was an amazing experience that allowed me to see my love for art and history collide in a tangible way.
In case you’re STILL wondering who I am, I will tell you a little bit more about myself. I am currently a senior and will be graduating in May. The most enjoyable thing for me to do is to sit down and read a book. This summer I read through the Harry Potter series for my first time ever. Let me just say that it was life-altering and I wish I had done it sooner. I also read Devil in the White City, which was an incredible historical novel. If you were to ask me my favorite thing about history I would say that it is seeing the ways in which different circumstances produce similar reactions within humans. I also love art history and seeing the ways a single circumstance can create and shape artistic movements and patterns.
My job as the social media TA will be to create content, update and maintain the different forms of social media that the department has, like Facebook and Instagram. I am really excited about this opportunity and the ways that it incorporates my love for design and history.
Joni Mitchell has a song called “A Case of You” in which she muses about the influence of another on her writing: “Part of you pours out of me/ In these lines from time to time.” We’ve just had our second meeting in Senior Seminar, and part of the class consisted of conferences with students about potential topics. As I met with them, I kept thinking about Joni Mitchell because I could see the influences of other history professors not only in their topics, but also in the ways that they talked about history–how they see the past, what kinds of sources they want to use, and later (when we came together as a class) their views about intersections of faith and the discipline. Really, this is a team-taught course. And I am thankful for all the ways my colleagues will pour out of these students in their lines, from time to time. (And thanks, specifically, to Dr. Gehrz for his editing on this post and for the links!)
Collin Barrett (History/Pre-Med): Masculinity in Medieval Clergy
I’m seeking to understand how medieval clergy defined masculinity and if that definition was distinct from the rest of their society. How did clergy understand masculinity, for example, in the context of their participation in the “bride” of Jesus Christ? Did their definitions of masculinity have an impact beyond the medieval world?
Justin Brecheisen (History/Business): The John Williams Gunnison Massacre
In 1853, the Pahvant Utes in Utah ambushed and massacred an expedition led by U.S. Army Captain John Williams Gunnison. According to rumors, Mormon authorities—a group with whom Gunnison had interacted and written about—instigated the massacre. I am interested in exploring how this massacre reflects the relationship among the United States government, the Mormon authorities, and the Utes.
Phia Carlson (History): U.S. Reception to the Romanov Executions
The Romanov Dynasty was the final imperial family to rule over Russia. Myths and legends swirl regarding the final days of Tsar Nicholas II and his family, and I am interested in what contributed to the family becoming the subject of much fantastical speculation. What, for example, did the newspapers like the New York Times have to say about the family’s final days?
Caitlan Hart (History/Elementary Education): Women’s Roles in Classical Sparta and Athens
Although women were second-class citizens in both classical Athens and Sparta, there are distinctions in how the women lived in these two places. I am interested in how these roles and views on women varied based upon whether they lived. What factors contributed to these differences?
Kyle Kilgore (History): Racial Justice and the NFL
As an athlete, I have experienced first-hand how sports has the ability to draw people together. Yet, as the recent protests by players in the National Football League have highlighted, sports can also provide an important venue to express a desire to see greater racial justice. What is the history of race in the NFL?
Los Angeles Rams running back Kenny Washington, the first African American player in the post-World War II era – Wikimedia
Ida B. Wells’ 1892 pamphlet on lynching – Wikimedia
Zach Meinerts (History/Political Science): Lynching in the Post-Reconstruction South
Potentially using the debates in the Congressional Record in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century over the implementation of a federal anti-lynching law, this project would delve into history of lynching in the United States. If possible, the paper would explore both the sexual and religious connotations of lynching during this period.
Nelson Menjivar Lopez (History): El Salvador’s Civil War
The Salvadoran Civil War lasted for over a decade. Murders, abductions, and U.S. involvement in the conflict tore the country apart. While some fled the war for the United States, others remained in the country to witness the brutality on both sides. Using interviews with family and friends who were directly involved in the war, my project will show that the ramifications of this conflict can still be seen in both politics and daily life.
Logan Olson (History/Political Science): Native American Involvement in the U. S. Civil War
Although much historical attention has focused on the key battles and key figures in the U.S. Civil War, the story of Native American involvement can get left out. My research examines the role of Native Americans in this conflict and how their involvement impacted their relationship with the U.S. government in the post-war period.
Haley Shearer (Art History): Dime Museums and Vaudeville
Dime museums, often part of traveling vaudeville acts, tended to be popular forms of entertainment for working-class people in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. One of the ways these museums differentiated themselves from “institutionalized museums” tended to be in their efforts to both educate and entertain the masses. In addition to P. T. Barnum, who were the people associated with these museums? What kind of “education” was “entertaining” to the masses and why?
Luke Sherry (History/Pre-Med): Logging in Northern Wisconsin
The history of logging encompasses several possible questions. What was life like for an average lumberjack? How did logging change the ecology of both the northern woods? What was the environmental impact more generally? How did the exit of the logging camps and companies affect local communities? The digital collections of the Wisconsin Historical Society, which include twenty volumes of material of memoirs, records, journals, and explorer’s narratives, will help dictate the direction of my research.
Historians such as Ruth Karras and David Halperin have written extensively about the sexual culture prevailing among Greek men during the classical period. One aspect of that culture was pederasty. My project will focus on this practice and whether the Greeks were the first people not only to condone it but to integrate it into their culture.
Andrew Zwart (History/Biokinetics): Nikita Khrushchev and the Deescalation of Soviet Tension with the West
Following the death of Josef Stalin, there was a 30-year period before Mikhail Gorbachev came to power. During that period, Nikita Khrushchev made some critical changes that allowed the Soviet Union to transition from Stalin’s iron fist to Gorbachev’s de-escalation of tensions with the West. I plan to look at Khrushchev how accomplished this transition without losing the complete support of the Soviet people.
Our World War I group is more than halfway through its J-term in Europe. As we continue our stay in Paris, we’re all still thinking about our four days at Ypres, the Somme, and Normandy, three of the most important battlefields of the 20th century.
Here I’m happy to share two reflections written by Graphic Design/Studio Art major Anna Solomon during that stage of the trip. She started by thinking about the first stop on our Ypres tour: the British cemetery at Essex Farm, where a Canadian doctor named John McCrae wrote one of the most famous poems of WWI. Then Anna reexamined her impressions of the First World War after seeing sites from the Second.
Wednesday, January 9, 2019 – Going from the bustling metropolis of London with its energy, charm, fun, comfort, weather, and familiarity to Ypres was a meaningful experience. Ypres is quiet, solemn, open, quaint, moving (emotionally), cold… and home to some of the most remarkable experiences of the trip. Seeing where “In Flanders Fields” was written was humbling. I’m having trouble wrapping my mind around the gravitas of these places. I feel like I want to cry (I kind of have a few times), but that’s good because it means it’s important. Even though my great-grandfather was the one to fight here and not me, these sites are giving me a connection with a war I never fought and a man not even my grandfather knew.
Essex Farm was also impactful because we saw workers [from the Commonwealth War Graves Commission] maintaining the graves. Seeing them serving and interacting with the site in that way was striking. Watching them tend the grounds they seemed like gardeners of honor and ghosts of the past. The war still means so much to them, as does the conservation of these sites and of the sacrifices of the past. Here history walks the grounds and shakes me to my core.
Saturday, January 12, 2019 – …at the WWI sites I felt distraught and bitter about the war. My great-grandfather’s dog tags and victory medal felt impossibly heavy on my mind and in my pockets. My eyes would tear up thinking of how brutal and awful a war it was. The WWII sites at Normandy, however, felt different, and it quite frankly made me ponder why I felt that way. At the beaches and bunkers I felt excited… maybe because this seemed like a place and a war where Americans were heroes, the good guys; we were victorious. In movies and TV shows I’ve heard about these events, and it’s exhilarating to be in the place where they happened. The feeling of this being a glorious war swiftly faded upon contemplation. What horrors were seen and committed here… how many lives were lost here… what a different world this would have been to live in and through… what a haunting legacy.
On Wednesday we’ll take the train to Munich, where we’ll conclude our trip by studying some of the most important legacies of the First World War: the rise of National Socialism, the start of a second world war, and the radical evil of the Holocaust. Look for a final set of student reflections next Tuesday or Wednesday.
Today our World War I group will head to Oxford to learn about the world wars as J.R.R. Tolkien and C.S. Lewis experienced and interpreted them. Meanwhile, we thought we’d share a few student responses from our first days in London, as they reflect on some of the commemorative sites we’ve visited.
“The memorial that I found most interesting was Trafalgar Square because it hit me the most in terms of generating empathy… if I had been there in 1914, I would have joined the war, too. The monuments to past generals, admirals, and war heroes inspired me, and I am not even English. I would have… wanted to be remembered in history as a part of them.” (Drew Davis, senior Business major)
“After going to multiple memorial sites, I found the one most memorable to be the Women of WWII memorial… The monument itself is stuck right in the middle of the road, which you’d think would grab the attention of the drivers who go past it. But it seems like it’s part of their daily routine. I love how tall it was and how it was solid. It serves as a constant reminder of the women who stepped up in the war effort to preserve the life that was still going on at home. I also like how the clothes represented different roles, which showed the diversity of the women who served.” (Laura Dahlquist, senior Nursing major)
“For me the most interesting memorial was Australia’s… due to my lack of knowledge of Australia’s involvement in the wars. I was really amazed by the simple beauty of the wall, and by how many people had died… Their sacrifices in the wars were interesting due to their location… Their involvement and the number of battles show that the wars was appealing universally. Not just for Europeans, but to others around the world. A chance to prove oneself or to prove a country’s capabilities…” (Logan Olson, senior History/Political Science major)
On Wednesday we’ll start our tour of WWI (Flanders, The Somme) and WWII (Normandy) battlefields. Come back here next week to read some student reflections on that portion of our tour.
Today we’re happy to share a second example of recent exam essays in GES130 Christianity and Western Culture, in which students explained a lesson they thought contemporary Christians could learn from their medieval forebears. This essay comes from Maddie Sumners, a freshman at Bethel who hails from Victoria, MN and graduated from Chanhassen High School.
One important lesson that would help us in the 21st century comes from St. Benedict, an Italian monk who lived between the 4th and 5th centuries. He formed the version of monasticism known as the Benedictine Order, the rules for which are outlined in The Rule of St. Benedict. He calls Christians to live according to a set of rules that are not meant to be burdensome or oppressing, but gently guide them toward holiness. Also included in this version of monasticism is the idea of living one’s life to glorify God through work and study. What humans in the 21st century can really learn from the Benedictine Order, however, is the idea of living in community with other believers.
Modern culture is increasingly individualistic, with the rise of the internet and technology, people today rarely feel the need to interact with others. In fact, many people do not even leave their homes to attend church. They simply watch sermons online. This individualistic attitude, however, is in opposition to God’s call for Christians.
God calls Christians to join together as communities of faith, so that each person in the community may grow in their own faith journey throught he process of working through personal struggles with others and helping others through any struggles they may be experiencing. It is this mode of sharing one’s life with others that Benedict modeled so well through building monasteries for monks to live in.
Christians should respond to God’s call and live (metaphorically) as St. Benedict and his followers did. In doing so, Christians will form stronger, healthier relationships with God and others, an invaluable benefit of community. Though Benedict lived centuries ago, his model of faith is one that Christians today can learn much from, and his ideas on community should be applied in the 21st century, so that Christians can grow in their faith and come closer to God.
We’ve occasionally published student work from upper-level History courses like Modern Europe and Senior Seminar, but this week I thought I’d share some writing by Bethel students who aren’t necessarily majoring in History… but are studying the past in Christianity and Western Culture, the multidisciplinary first-year course that is a foundation of Bethel’s gen ed curriculum. Taking some inspiration from our former colleague Chris Armstrong, we asked CWC students to conclude their second exams with a short essay sharing “one important lesson… we can learn from medieval Christianity.” We’ll start with this wonderful piece by pre-nursing student Lynsey Zeng (Plymouth, MN).
When Dante Alighieri wrote his way to heaven, he was putting into words what the Medieval mind already knew: that the world, nestled within concentric, crystalline spheres, was little more than an abyss — a hollow pocket to faintly echo the symphony of the cosmos. Beneath the earth, the wintry crater of hell juxtaposed the swift revolution of the planets with its stillness, and the human being, caught at the center of the universe, was given the choice to either ascend or be drawn under. The heliocentric universe, with its conviction that it is outer space which is silent and the world which is a cacophony, would have been ridiculous to the medievals. To them, heaven was paralleled in the order of the universe, and God was just beyond the rim of the stars. For centuries, they built cathedrals like causeways and constructed and constructed towering scholastic arguments in an attempt to peer beyond the physical. Above all, the paradox of the Sacraments was a startling reminder that the Christian must contradict the world in order to be oriented towards God. Modernists may scoff at the primitive science of the “Dark Ages,” but it is telling of our spiritual state that we are often content to live comfortably within the world while the medieval was always trying to climb out of it.
Heliocentrism is correct; human ears cannot perceive sound in the vacuum of outer space and so we have filled the earth with endless distractions. In the 21st century, it is a rare and uncomfortable thing to experience silence, but to the medieval, it was essential. It is what the Christian would have confessed his sins into, and hearing them apart from himself in the quiet, they would have appeared alien and ugly. Silence is what the mystic needed to envision, the scholastic to rationalize, and the monk to reflect. Modern Christians need not believe in geocentrism, but there is something admirable in the medieval attempt to turn culture into a compass towards God. From the Middle Ages we are reminded that we are between heaven and hell, that the distractions of this world are ephemeral, and that perhaps only in the silence can the symphony of heaven be heard.
Hello readers of AC 2nd, my name is Aidan Ruch and I am the social media TA for the History Department this year. As my name will be showing up on more blog posts this year I thought I would introduce myself and let you know a little bit about me.
I am a History and Political Science double-major and currently a sophomore. In my free time I enjoy reading a good book while enjoying a cup of tea, or trying to convince my friends to play one of those very complicated board games that take a good hour just to read the directions. I also take part in Bethel Student Government, Model United Nations, and many of Bethel’s theatre productions.
The fact that I am writing for Bethel’s History department is rather strange because it was not until recently that I envisioned my life going this direction.
I had originally planned on being a English major. My father is an English major, and I have always had a love of books. One particular summer I was reading The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara, which is about Gettysburg… while I was at Gettysburg. Being able to read about a great battle and the various men who fought in it and then being able to look up and see the exact thing being mentioned in the book was an amazing experience. It made the normal world seem as magical as the lands of Narnia or those in Lord of the Rings.
This began a shift that led to me becoming a history major, but it didn’t make me stop loving stories. Rather, I now focus on one great story, the story of the past.
I had no plans on coming to Bethel. I had always seen it as a good school, but I had lived in Minnesota most of my life and believed it was time for a change and a chance to leave the state. I did, however, decide to take a year of PSEO here, and in doing so I was irrevocably drawn in. I almost immediately clicked with the community, the faculty, and the History Department. I therefore decided to stay on at Bethel, and two years later here I am as a TA for the history department.
That is the journey that has brought me here and some my interests. Wishing you well from AC 2nd floor… I’m Aidan Ruch.
Now that our profs have had a chance to report on summer highlights, we thought we’d turn the theme over to a few of our 2018-2019 department teaching assistants. How do Bethel History students spend their summers?
Haley Johnson ’19: This summer I did quite a few things. I worked on a project with Compass Airlines on updating all of their maintenance documents for Delta and American Airlines fleets so that they were up to code with the FAA. Aside from working, I planned my wedding, got married on August 11th, and honeymooned in Cabo San Lucas, Mexico.
While there we got to go kayaking, snorkeling, and parasailing. It was quite the summer. (An Art History major, Haley will be assisting Prof. Goldberg with Intro to the Digital Humanities next spring.)
Justin Brecheisen ’19: This summer I had a Technical Sales Internship at Twin City Fan Companies in Plymouth, Minnesota. I spent a lot of my summer getting immersed in the business world in a way I haven’t before and I learned valuable skills I know I will be able to utilize no matter where God leads me in the future.
After spending much of my summer in a cubicle, I had the refreshing privilege to travel to Utah with my family. Visiting five national parks allowed me to explore corners of God’s amazing creation that I had never seen and opened my eyes to fresh perspectives. It was a fantastic way to finish out the summer. As I transition back to Bethel, this trip has framed my perspective, reminding me of the important things in life as I shift from a busy internship to a busy semester. (Justin is double-majoring in History and Business and will again help Prof. Magnuson in the archives.)
Peter Engstrom ’20: This summer I worked at Trout Lake Camps. I was on adventure staff, which means I got to run all of the zip lines and rock walls for all of the kiddos. My summer was filled with 40 minute chats on the top of zip line convincing kids that the zip line had never dropped anyone before and it sure wasn’t gonna happen today on my watch. This summer I got the incredible opportunity to go skydiving, which was an amazing experience. I had always wanted to go skydiving but never thought anything would materialize out of that, until our adventure team decided to jump out of a plane together at 10,000 feet. This summer was filled with amazing experiences, and I got to see God work in incredible ways at camp. (One of our History/Social Studies Education students, Peter will TA for Prof. Kooistra when she returns from her fall sabbatical.)
Aidan Ruch ’21: This summer my dad got a sabbatical grant and my whole family took a two-month trip to the Netherlands, Kenya, and England. I have many fond memories of that trip, but one of my favorite stories was when we were staying at a bed and breakfast near Stratford-upon-Avon.
At breakfast I was talking to the owners of the place, and I happened to mention that that I was a history major. Upon hearing this the owner’s eyes lit up. He explained that he was quite the history buff and offered to show me the local church later that day. It was built in the early 1100s and was one of the first churches in the area. Indeed, on the ceiling there are various pagan carvings such as a learning face of a druid, as the people who originally built the church were unsure about this newfangled religion called Christianity and so decided to hedge their bets. Our host, Mr. Kerr, happened to be the church warden and had the key to the safe. After sorting through the various items in the safe, he pulled out a beautiful chalice, looked at it, and said, “ Oh we don’t want this one; it’s only from the 18th century.” He put it back and pulled out another chalice made in the 150’s, which local legend says was made out of silver plundered from a Spanish galleon. In this manner I was able to hold a chalice that, had it been discovered off the coast of America, would now be in a museum, all while standing in a church that is older than my country. I am awestruck to this day that I was able to have such an experience, and it is something that I will forever cherish. (Aidan is a History/Political Science major and Prof. Gehrz’s social media TA for the year. Look from much more from him at AC 2nd in the weeks to come…)
Nelson Menjivar ’19, a Bethel History major and Philosophy minor, was named to the 2018-2019 cohort of the INCE Museum Fellows at the Minnesota Historical Society. The program includes a fall course at MNHS, a site visit to museums in Chicago, a paid internship next spring, and ongoing mentoring after the program concludes.
In addition to letting students explore museum-related careers, the INCE program
is designed to engage students in studying the challenges related to the underrepresentation of communities of color and American Indian Nations in historical organizations and public history graduate programs. Communities need to “see themselves” in the work of cultural organizations in order to identify with their missions.
A native of West Saint Paul, MN, Nelson currently serves as a teaching assistant with Bethel’s Christianity and Western Culture program. He says that he was particularly excited about the INCE program because it offered “the chance to work with museums and professionals who not only study history, but also find a way to present it to the public… I’m excited to get the internship started and use the valuable tools I’ve picked up at the Bethel History department!”
Today we’re happy to revive our occasional series featuring students who have spent a semester abroad. Christina Sibileva ’18 is a Social Studies Education 5-12 major and History minor; she was kind enough to answer some questions about her experience of the unique Semester at Seaprogram.
How’d you decide to major in Social Studies Ed? Was it something you knew you wanted to study when you started college, or did you choose it later on?
As a freshman at Bethel, I knew I wanted to pursue a major that allowed me to work with people. During my first two semesters, I believed the way I would work with people would be in the medical field. Through trial and error of the science courses at Bethel, I realized at the end of my first year that the medical field was not for me. In the summer before sophomore year I was flipping through the Bethel catalog for a new major and found myself intrigued by the courses offered in a Social Studies Education 5-12 major. As I began my first semester of the sophomore year with a completely different course load, I realized my skills and interests lined up quite nicely with the courses being offered in my major. I began feeling confident in my ability to grow within my field and step into a career path that allows me to be challenged by learning every day. The social sciences within my major correspond well with the way I perceive elements in life and allow abstract thoughts to mingle with concrete thoughts in terms of history, geography, and the other various topics in Social Studies.
Likewise, what sparked your interest in spending a semester off-campus? Was it hard to fit that kind of program into the Social Studies Ed major?
There were days where I looked outside at the snowy campus of Bethel and found myself regretting choosing a college with a limited climate range. One day I was informed of a program called Semester at Sea, and later on, I saw some peers were currently on the study abroad program, which allowed me to commit to seeing how I could spend a semester off-campus. Due to discovering about the program well into my second semester of sophomore year there were hurdles to jump through in order to fit the program into my schedule. Fortunately, my advisor was willing and able to work with me to ensure the courses I needed would work with my major on the study abroad program and also to ensure I took required courses at Bethel in different semesters than my semester off-campus. The biggest hurdle to face is running into courses that are taught in certain semesters either in the fall or spring, but working with my advisor and registrar allowed me to create a unique schedule to fit all the pieces in and still be on track for graduation.
You picked a particularly distinctive experience. Can you just tell us a bit about Semester at Sea, how you heard about it, and why you went with that option?
Looking at the website alone for Semester at Sea gave me enough insight on wanting to pursue the program. The images on the website include a shipboard community where students live on a ship as their campus and take classes there as well. The locations the program can take you is another reason I became committed to pursuing the program right away. Scrolling through the list of destinations in Asian and African countries allowed me to realize this is a program that can provide me a unique learning experience. I can honestly say I was sold right away with the program because there was something that simply felt right about it, similar to my major choice.
[See also our earlier interview with Meloni Rudolph ’94, who worked for Semester at Sea as a student life staff member.]
What were the most formative aspects of that semester? Any particularly evocative memories of the places and people you visited?
The shipboard community stands out. There were 600 students from various parts of the world embarking on this journey together to study abroad and learn through a broad range of experiences. Within this community, there were unique conversations that occurred allowing each community member to share experiences from the study abroad program, or learn from one another through sharing each person’s story. The community allowed a space to process each experience, learn from one another, and feel refreshed to collect more experiences and memories in each new day that came.
Along the journey, the experiences that stood out the most include taking a seat in a foreign country on a bench and soaking in the new surroundings. With each day there was something new to stimulate your senses, whether that was a new language or culture, climate or season, as we were circumnavigating the globe. I especially remember trekking through Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam in various forms of transportation to have an opportunity to take a tour of the Mekong River Delta. Seeing how local communities live and rely on the river was eye-opening and breathtaking. I was able to catch a glimpse into the daily lives of the locals in that specific region and I find myself in awe of the transformative capacity of such an experience.
How did studying abroad broaden or deepen your understanding of history, or shape how you’re going to approach education?
Through this experience I found myself being able to interact with history in a new format that was unattainable at Bethel. Courses in my program were taught by faculty who have lived and experienced cross-cultural historical events or provided insight on how they learned about various elements of history.
Through visiting various countries and being able to explore classrooms in Asian and African countries, I was able to interact with students and teachers about their educational systems specific to their country. One moment from India that stands out was interacting with those students in the classroom about how much they love to learn. I was really intrigued by the passion for education within various classrooms I visited because these students shared similar passions with me. Despite language barriers and varying cultural values; our shared passion to seek and pursue knowledge through education became common ground. The students I met in these various Asian and African cultures showed me how much they wanted to learn from me and made me realize one important reason I want to be a teacher: how much I wanted to learn from them. I discovered my own passion for becoming a global citizen and bringing pieces of who I am, what I have learned, and what I desire to learn into the classroom to inspire my students to become global citizens. Semester at Sea inspired me to continue seeking these moments of being able to learn from students and families abroad simultaneously as I am able to teach students about the places I have been, the places I am going, and connect curriculum to these stories.